Monday, August 12, 2013

Snowflake macro photography

  >> Русская версия этой статьи | Russian version of this article
  >> Chinese (Traditional) version translated by Hung Li. Many thanks!

Dear visitors! I'm sorry in advance for my terrible English (i never studied it methodically).

From all photography, my main interest is macro shooting of real snowflakes. Currently, i use low cost variation of well-known lens reversal macro technique: compact camera Canon Powershot A650is at maximum optical zoom (6x) shoots through lens Helios 44M-5 (taken from old film camera Zenit, made in USSR), reversely mounted in front of built-in camera optics. Compared to Canon A650 standard macro mode, this simple setup achieves much better magnification and details, lesser chromatic aberrations and blurring at image corners, but also very shallow depth of field.

I capture every snowflake as short series of identical shots (usually 8-10, for most interesting and beautiful crystals - 16 shots and more), and average it (after aligning, for every resulting pixel take arithmetical mean of corresponding pixels from all shots of series) at very first stage of processing workflow. Averaging technique dramatically reduces noise and reveals thin and subtle details and color transitions, which almost unseen in every single shot from series, because they masked by noise.

snowflake macro photo on dark woolen background
snowflake macro photo on glass with backlight

My camera works with CHDK - Canon Hack Development Kit: this is resident program, which works together with firmware and expands camera functionality. Once installed on SD card, it starts automatically when camera turned on. This "alternate firmware" is really wonderful thing, which turns compact camera into powerful tool, capable of RAW writing, exposure bracketing for HDR and focus bracketing for focus-stacks, executing scripts on BASIC-like language and many more. Installing and uninstalling CHDK is easy and non-destructive process. I highly recommend CHDK to photographers with compatible cameras (it supports lots of Canon compacts).

CHDK is not necessary for snowflake macro photography, but it is very useful, because it support RAWs as well as standard JPEGs and able to execute scripts. I use script Ultra Intervalometer with zero delay between serial shots. With this setting, it works as continuous series with auto focusing before each shot. Re-focusing helps with small shifts of camera and/or snowflake, which happens very often.

Equipment and place

The necessary equipment is not expensive (i already had everything i need: a camera and lens Helios 44 and all other components, and this macro rig costs me nothing). I think, almost every compact camera is suitable for this simple setup, especially ones with good optical zoom and with high resolution sensor. Instead of Helios 44, many other external lens can be used. I've tested also Industar 50 and Zenitar 2/50 (both lens also was manufactured in USSR for film SLR camera Zenit). For testing macro capabilities, you can simply hold them in front of camera (which works in zooming mode) and make a few test shots. In my case, Helios works fine, i even managed to capture some insects and spiders, holding external lens in hand, though this is not comfortable without mounting lens in front of camera some way.

The smaller the focal length of the external lens and bigger - of built-in camera's optics, the greater magnification is achieved, and the less depth of field is obtained. Compact camera, with a sensor of small physical size, have an advantage over DSLRs in the depth of field and mobility, allowing you to take pictures quickly and easily change the location and the shooting angle. But it have higher noise level.

My shooting place is open balcony of my house. Less than half of it covered by roof, other part is under open sky. When the snow is light, i photograph on the open part, choosing the most beautiful and interesting snowflakes fell on the background, and clean background periodically, when it becomes covered by snow. When snowfall is heavy, usually i photograph under the roof, bringing the background under the snow to catch the new crystals. I was lucky that i have such nice place, where nobody disturbs me and i can return into house when i freeze.

First efforts

Initially, two findings in the web inspired me to try snowflake photography:

First one was famous site by American professor of physics Kenneth G. Libbrecht. I could not believe my eyes when i first saw his photographs of snowflakes - so amazing and beautiful they looked. For me, snowflakes by Kenneth Libbrecht, Don Komarechka, and several other excellent photographers (mentioned further), are standard of quality and an ideal to aspire.

But, as many people, who saw really good snowflake photos first time, i thought that it is impossible to shoot something like this for amateur photographer, without any experience and expensive microscopy technique. Now i know that this is completely wrong! Every photographer with simple point-and-shoot camera can make very good snowflake photos. For this type of photography, patience, persistence and luck mean much more than any expensive photo technique. It is necessary to wait for good snowfalls, which brings a large number of interesting and beautiful snowflakes. They happens not so often (at least, in Moscow), but one lucky day can give you lots of wonderful photographs, worth weeks of waiting and capturing only non-interesting crystals.

For example, my best snowflake photos from winter 2013-14 photographed in two successful days: 16 and 26 January, though i photographed during the whole winter at every opportunity:

Snowflake macro photo: Cryogenia
Snowflake macro photo: Twelve months

Second discovery convinced me that. On Russian photography site Fotki.Yandex.Ru i stumbled across two photographs of snowflakes (sorry, can not remember the author's name). These were photos on a dark woolen fabric (material that is often used to capture snowflakes, one of my favorite backgrounds: it has several important advantages). Against this background, snowflakes looked very impressive - like jewels in a jewelry store. And this beauty was photographed by a conventional compact camera without a microscope! From that day i was waited for the winter like never before, to try this myself.

In the beginning, from December 2008, i photographed snowflakes in standard macro mode of my camera, without any optical extensions. Canon Powershot A650 have 12-megapixel sensor and a good macro mode, in which it can focus from 1 centimeter from the lens. That's enough to get good pictures of snowflakes, but in very low resolution: it is necessary to cut out a small central part with the object and some surrounding background from the whole frame:

Source shot, 4000 x 3000Processed picture, 800 x 600
Darkside, snowflake source photoDarkside, processed snowflake image

Depending on the size of the snowflake (it can vary in a very wide range) size of the finished picture is from 640x480 to 1024x768 pixels, no more. This is only suitable for the Internet or a collage, but not for prints.

Here is some examples of snowflake photos, taken in standard macro mode: old snowflake shots, 2009-2011.

Dark and bright photos

In those days i photographed snowflakes in two ways, and today i use both with some improvements:

1. For dark images with bright snowflake i use dark background (at first, it was a green rug for footwear, made of artificial fibers, and then - black woolen fabric) and natural light of cloudy sky. Background laid out on a stool, and as soon as i see among the fallen snowflakes good and interesting crystals, i photograph them at an angle, touching background with both hands and the bottom of camera for steady shots (light on cloudy winter days rather dull, and shutter time is not too short). Camera shoots in macro mode from the minimum possible distance at which it can focus. In camera settings i choose to focus on a small central area instead of the standard auto focusing on multiple zones - it allows to focus precisely on the center or front edge of snowflakes; and set exposure metering mode to central spot, instead of evaluating on whole frame (otherwise small bright snowflake on a dark background will be overexposed; alternative ways is to use negative exposure compensation, or set shutter speed manually).

Snowflake macro photo: Rigel

2. For images with bright background and transparent silhouette of snowflake - shooting on glass surface with backlight. On the floor of the balcony i put upturned legs up stool, on its legs put four pieces of foam rubber (anti-slip), and over them - a sheet of glass. To shooting aimed straight down without any camera shake, i make a simple replacement of tripod: i took small plastic bottle, and from middle part of it cut out cylinder with height of 5.5 centimeters. That height is selected in such a way that the camera lens, pushed in, did not get to the bottom 1 centimeter (this is minimum focusing distance of Canon Powershot A650 in macro mode). When snowflakes falls at the glass, i put this tube with camera over a chosen snowflakes, and shoot with 2 seconds delay (using custom timer function in camera menu), so i have time to move out hands from camera for steady shot.

With left hand, i light snowflake from below of the glass with LED flashlight. I put white plastic bag on flashlight - it serves as diffuser, making LED light more uniform. Light is strong enough to photograph even at night, with lowest ISO and short shutter speeds. If flashlight pointed straight up, we will see on camera screen only dark outlines of snowflake and its internal structure on a light background (it looks pretty boring, at my taste). If we move flashlight a little sideways, and point it to snowflake at some angle, snowflake silhouette becomes volumetric, with dark and light contours. This looks more interesting and shows structure of snow crystal much better. I cool sheet of glass outside at least 15 minutes before start photograph, otherwise it melts snowflakes. When the glass is covered with a layer of snow, i remove it with dry towel.

Snowflake macro photo: Forget-me-not

From 2013, for photos on glass i use simple multi-colored lighting: instead of white diffuser, i put on flashlight a fragment of plastic bag with some color pattern or text (for example, white / orange or blue / white / pink). Because i hold flashlight at some distance from glass with snowflake, it is completely out of focus; and background contains only smooth color gradient with multi-colored facets of the snow crystals. Even if i do not like colors on source shots, this is not a problem: i can easily convert source colors to more pleasant variants with contrast curves on channels A and B in LAB color space.

Averaging technique

Since 2011, i capture every snowflake as short series of identical shots. When processing, this series averaged and merged into one picture. This technique dramatically reduces noise (improve the signal / noise ratio of the image) and reveals weak and subtle details, masked in each single frame by noise. Here is article about averaging technique.

Macro setup with external optics

In 2012, i started using external optics for better magnification of snow crystals, and built simple optical add-on for my camera. This macro setup based on lens Helios 44M-5 from camera Zenit:

Lens Helios 44 magnification

At first, i took narrow wooden board (around 30 centimeters long and 6 centimeters wide) and temporary attached lens Helios 44 to one end, mounted reversely: back lens to object, front lens to camera. Then, i placed camera on board next to Helios, turned it on and used optical zoom mode at maximum (6x). I aligned camera so that internal lens almost touched Helios and both lenses were on the same optical axis. Then, i mounted Helios permanently (with duct tape, using many layers), and drilled through board an opening for screw, suitable for camera's tripod socket. I attached the camera with a screw from below and additionally with small metallic bracket, glued to the side of wooden board: it holds opposite side of camera, so it didn't move when attached. Camera attaches and detaches easily and quickly. On back side of Helios (which is front side of whole macro setup) i attached three standard narrow extension rings from camera Zenit (this is necessary only when shooting vertically on glass, in other cases i detach them). These rings keeps lens Helios at needed focusing distance from snowflakes on glass (2,5-3 centimeters in my case). The point of contact of internal and external lenses i covered with sleeve, created from black plastic bag: it protects this zone from outer light, snow, ice and drops of water. Also, i glued thin rubber at front edge of board (below Helios) and on outer extension ring, which stands on glass: this is for anti-slip.

The whole construction has turned out quite firmly and steadily stands vertically on extension rings. I used it 3 winters, and it does not require any repairing. I simply put this setup on glass over the chosen snowflakes and photograph in maximum optical zoom mode. Auto-focus works fine, camera focuses through external optics without any issues.

Here is scheme of this macro setup (larger image opens on Flickr):

Scheme of snowflake macro setup, based on lens Helios 44

Assembled macro setup (definitely, not the most beautiful thing in the world):

Snowflake macro setup, based on lens Helios 44 - side view

Snowflake macro setup, based on lens Helios 44 - front view

All ready, needs only snow:

Snowflake macro photography

Snowflake photography on opaque backgrounds

This setup i also use to shoot on dark opaque background (with detached extension rings). For these photos i use natural light of cloudy sky. I shoot at angle: put rear side of board on small desktop tripod (Continent TR-F7). On top of tripod, i attached small and flat piece of wood for better stability. Bending flexible legs of tripod, i easily adjust angle, at which camera pointed at snowflake. Near side of board (with front lens) lays at background. I capture serie for one crystal, then quickly move and point macro setup to next snowflake.

Macro rig, based on lens Helios 44, shooting at angle on woolen background

My main background for these shots is black woolen fabric. It have very useful properties, thanks to thin, rigid and springy fibers, rising from the fabric and going in all directions. First: when snowflakes falls to such tissue, usually they hanging in the air, touching the fibers only at few points, and this slows down melting. Second: snowflakes often stuck and held by fibers so well that the wind can't blow them away, or even move. Third: when needed, it is easy to move or lean snowflake in desired direction with toothpick, and usually crystals held in new position by fibers and do not fall or shift. But, despite the practicality, i do not particularly like the look of this background in the photographs. When process photos, often i am trying to clean up most distracting fibers near to snowflakes.

When capturing snowflakes at an angle, immediately becomes apparent that the depth of field is too small even if we use most narrow aperture. The obvious solution is to use focus stacking technique at least with 3-5 shots, although this is not easy to shoot large series for combined focus stacking and averaging techniques, when our object quickly melts and sublimates. Alternate solution is easier: when snowflake rests on the fibers of wool fabric, it is not difficult to lean it into the desired position. So it is sufficient to aim macro setup at crystal, and then, looking from the side, change the slope of snowflake with a toothpick so that it will lie parallel to the plane of the lens - and in this case it will fit in focus completely. Despite its apparent fragility, snowflakes surprisingly strong and usually withstand a few touches by toothpick without any visual signs of damage.

Snowflake macro photo: Leaves of ice

I constantly use wooden toothpicks for this photography, and always keep in the cold a few pieces in reserve. Besides of tilting snowflakes to the desired angle, i use them to raise snowflakes, too deeply seated in the wool fibers, as well as moving out crystals that fell next to the selected for shooting, and even separate snowflake clusters to single crystals.

Camera settings

I set these camera settings: shutter priority mode (TV); exposure time: 2 seconds (this is much longer shutter speed that camera would select with auto settings); focusing by single central area, instead of multiple zones; exposure metering mode to central spot, instead of evaluating on whole frame (otherwise snowflake on dark background will be overexposed). All other settings on Auto. With these strange settings, camera tries to lower exposure (for keeping it normal at central spot with bright snowflake). Camera lowers ISO to minimum and selects most narrow aperture; but exposure still too high, and finally, camera lowers exposure time. The result is exactly what we need: photos with correct exposure, minimum noise and maximum possible depth of field. Of course, it is possible to set all the parameters in manual mode (M), including a minimum ISO and most narrow aperture, but then we have to set the shutter speed manually and adjust it when lighting conditions changed. But not every Canon compact camera will work like this: for example, Canon G10 does not adjust the shutter speed set in TV mode, and over-exposures photos with such settings. For these cameras will likely be optimal to set all parameters in manual mode instead of TV.

For photos on glass i use the same parameters, except for starting shutter speed in 1 second (in this mode we have much more light) and exposure metering - center-weighted or evaluative: usually we have bright background with slightly darker snowflake, and exposure metering by central spot can lead to overexposed background.

Shooting strategy

In most cases, i capture snowflakes instantly when they falls on background (wool fabric or glass), without moving them anywhere, and only adjust their placement with toothpick, if it needed. This allows me to shoot fast and take lots of photos. Although the percentage of bad quality images is quite high, and often background contains many unfocused crystals and ice debris (they have to be removed at processing stage), still i can get a decent number of good shots in a limited time. This is important if good snow does not last long.

An alternative method also gives good results: keeping clean background somewhere under a canopy and move the best crystals on it one by one, using a fine watercolor brush. Transferring snowflakes with brush - a fairly simple process, it requires no special skill. We can use very large collection board under the snow, and will have much more interesting crystals to choose from. The disadvantage of this method - a rather slow shooting process.


Some unprocessed, straight out of camera JPEGs to compare: standard macro mode vs using external optics. Please click at images to open them in full 12-megapixel resolution:

Standard macro modeWith Helios 44
Example: shot on glass in standard macro modeExample: shot on glass with Helios 44
Example: shot on woolen background in standard macro modeExample: shot on woolen background with Helios 44

Also i prepared another before and after comparison table with unprocessed, straight out of camera photos and final pictures.

Some summer photos, taken with this macro setup:

Portrait of a flyNettle stinging hairs
Surface of strawberryPollen grains of Alcea Rosea


Shooting is fast and easy, but my processing workflow takes significant time and effort. I'm trying to get the most quality out of available sources, and make picture with low noise, but preserving all possible details. At first stage, i convert source shots from RAWs to TIFFs, then align and average series for selected crystal. Then i work with sharpening, additional noise removing, cleaning background from ice debris, unfocused crystals and other distracting elements, color toning (i prefer adding blue colors to my pictures: in most cases, source shots looks too monochrome and not appealing, at my taste) and finally, contrast curve. Also, my workflow includes manual drawing precise mask, needed for separating crystal from background. This mask used for process crystal and background with different sharpening and noise removing settings. Drawing these masks requires patience, accuracy and lots of time, especially for big and complex snow flakes.

Finished snowflake pictures

Here is some post-processed snowflake photos, taken with new macro setup:

Snowflake macro photo: Oak leaves or feathers?
Snowflake macro photo: Flower within a flower
Snowflake macro photo: Ice relief
Snowflake macro photo: Snow Queen's capacitors
Snowflake macro photo: Ice dust 2
Snowflake macro photo: Jewel
Snowflake macro photo: Web
Snowflake macro photo: Capped column
Snowflake macro photo: Almost triangle
Snowflake macro photo: Alien's data disk
Snowflake macro photo: Hex appeal
Snowflake macro photo: Icy jewel
Snowflake macro photo: Starlight
Snowflake macro photo: Ice crown
Snowflake macro photo: Less is more
Snowflake macro photo: Beneath a steel sky
Snowflake macro photo: Cold metal
Snowflake macro photo: Flying castle
Snowflake macro photo: Gardener's dream
Snowflake macro photo: Frozen hearts

Rainbow snowflakes

This is snowflakes with clearly visible thin film interference effect (it described in Wikipedia). Same effect produces rainbow colors in soap bubbles, for example. Unlike bubbles, in snowflakes this effect can be seen only occasionally: if snowflake contains air cavities in the center, and interleaved layers of ice and air are very thin:

Snowflake macro photo: Ice rainbow
Snowflake macro photo: Ice rainbow 2
Snowflake macro photo: Rainbow flower
Snowflake macro photo: In the hall of the montain king

Several high resolution collages:

Snowflake photo collage: End of season - dark crystals
Snowflake photo collage: End of season - bright crystals
Snowflake photo collage: Dark crystals 2012-2014
Snowflake photo collage: Bright crystals 2012-2014

Recently i created a page Wallpapers with snowflake photos. All photos available in different screen proportons (4:3, 16:10, 16:9), resolutions from SVGA 800 x 600 to Ultra HD 4K, 3840 x 2160 pixels:

Snowflake ultra HD 4k wallpapers page - free download

All my snowflake photos in album Snowflakes and snow crystals on Flickr. All of them are free for non-commercial use (Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial license):

Snowflakes and snow crystals, photo album by Alexey Kljatov (Алексей Клятов) aka ChaoticMind75

My snowflake prints are available at several print-on-demand services:

also, photos can be downloaded from my Flickr photostream and printed in any photo lab.

My photos can be licensed for commercial use at:

Or, just contact me via E-mail.

See also

If you are interested in snowflake photography, i recommend to view also:

• Biography and work of Wilson Bentley, pioneer of snowflake photography;

Don Komarechka, canadian based professional photographer, who recently published great book about his way of snowflake photography, physics of ice crystals formation and many other interesting topics:

Don Komarechka. Sky Crystals: Unraveling the Mysteries of Snowflakes (book cover), created by Kenneth G. Libbrecht - great resource about snowflake physics and photography. I especially recommend section about snowflake classification with photo examples of each type: Guide to Snowflakes. Also, Kenneth's fantastic snowflake collection available on Flickr. I especially recommend his album Designer Snowflakes with amazing and extremely beautiful crystals, artifically grown in laboratory.

• My mother shoots snowflakes with similar technique (i built another macro setup for her Canon G10, similar to my own). You can see her snowflake album on Flickr.

• And snowflake albums of other excellent photographers on Flickr:

  • Pamela Eveleigh
  • Fred Widall
  • Mark Cassino
  • David Drexler
  • Linden Gledhill
  • Jessica D

Also, if you would like, you can subscribe to my blog by Email. I constantly work with snowflake photos, and you'll see new photos and wallpapers instantly after publication:

Emails delivered by Google Feedburner service, and you can unsubscribe any time.

Author: Alexey Kljatov


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  1. Super awesome, did some macro my self using your guide! Thx

  2. Now I cant wait for the first snow to try it.

  3. Absolutely stunning, i am so going to have to give this a go. We get enough of the white stuff in Manitoba, so i will plenty off flakes to shoot. Wonderful blog.

  4. C'est juste... superbe !!!
    Merci du partage, de la qualité du travail.

  5. Beautiful work. Thank you for sharing both the photos and your techniques!

  6. The most amazing snowflake shots I've ever seen! So beautiful! You are a true artist.

  7. Amazing work, you're a master in capturing beauty...

  8. Spectacular photos. Thank you for sharing your talent and gifts...

  9. Amazing photos :) I love it :)

  10. they look awesome! this is definitely next project to try for me!

  11. Очень здорово и интересно !

  12. Dziekuje :) Twoje śnieżynki sa piekne :)

  13. Thank you for your great work!

  14. Hey, I've red on forums that screwing out first two lenses of Helios (from mounting side) improve macro picture quality of helios. Do You know anything about it ?

  15. Hi

    Great pictures does this work with other Helios lenses such as the HELIOS-44M-4

    1. Thanks! I think, other lens will work too, but this needs to be tested.

  16. Absolutely amazing! You Sir, are a genius, and your photos are brilliant!!! Simple, -yet it's a very effective set up.

  17. I had to try it myself and discovered that this is very hard. Insects and spiders are much easier because of the time frame to have to take the picture. Thank you very much for sharing your excellent work. You are a true inspirer and I will come back again and again.

  18. is it true that not one snowflake is alike. amazing photos

  19. It's a beautiful work!... REALLY LOVE IT!
    thanks for sharing~

  20. Wow, this is awesome. I would like to try it but snow is rare here in florida. I guess is time to start scraping the walls of my freezer and see what happens...

  21. Ingenious setup for macro photography. You have "Zolotie ruki"

  22. Thanks a lot for this ! I built my own and really enjoy making photos and videos using your technique.
    And bravo for your fascinating snowflake pictures ! Strange how they always have 6 sides...

  23. Thankyou! Amazing! and Thankyou!

  24. Алексей! Респект! По белому завидую такой работе!
    "Нобеля", если мог-бы, дал.

    1. Спасибо! Но вообще-то в этом нет ничего нового.

  25. Thank you for your very detail information. Will try this on 2015 winter snow. Excited and waiting for the Winter. Love all your amazing and stuning snowflake photos. Great job!

  26. Thank you very much, dear visitors! I glad if you like snowflakes as much as i am.